Cerebellar oscillations in PD patients during resting, motor, and cognitive states.

We have described the presence of abnormal cerebellar oscillations in PD via the recording of cerebellar EEG and comparing the cerebellar EEG signals with nearby electrodes and muscles activities.

Our data demonstrated that in addition to established cortical and basal ganglia oscillations (beta and gamma bands), abnormal resting-state cerebellar theta (4-7 Hz) oscillations may also participate in the underlying pathophysiology of PD symptoms.

In other experiments, we collected cerebellar EEG in PD patients and control subjects during lower-limb movement and interval timing cognitive tasks and showed the attenuation in theta-band power during both motor and cognitive tasks in PD patients compared to control subjects.

Brain stimulation: Closed-loop EEG-TMS in patients

TMS can normalize brain oscillations and improve motor and cognitive functions in humans. However, the conventional TMS approach is not very effective, therefore, we are developing the advanced closed-loop method to deliver the TMS pulses at the occurrence of signature brain activity.

EEG during lower-limb motor function in PD patients.

Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with freezing of gait (PDFOG+) exhibit reduced theta and increased beta oscillations in the midfrontal region during lower-limb pedaling motor performance compared to PD patients without freezing of gait (PDFOG-) and healthy age-matched control subjects.

Cognitive deficits in PD patients with freezing of gait (PDFOG+)

We have shown the relationship between freezing of gait in PD patients and cognitive impairments via statistical modelings.

Furthermore, our EEG data demonstrated that PDFOG+ exhibit decreased midfrontal delta-band power at the onset of the target cue, which was also correlated with abnormal behavioral responses and FOG scores. Results showed that abnormal midfrontal low-frequency oscillations in PDFOG+ are related to cognitive dysfunction and describe the mechanistic relationship between cognitive and gait functions in PD patients with gait abnormalities.